Essay on Naxalism: A Threat To Internal Security
On May 25, 2013 naxalites made a violent attack on some congress leaders returning from the ‘Parivartan Yatra’ at Darba Valley of district Sukma in Chhattisgarh. In this attack 29 people, including state’s Ex-Home Minister Mahendra Varma, Congress leader Nand Kumar Patel and ex-MLA Uday Mudaliar, were killed. On June 29, 2010 at least 26 CRPFjawans were killed in a massive attack by naxalites near Narayanpur Camp in Chhattisgarh. This was a most coordinated and successful operation carried out by the Naxalites against the paramilitary forces. It was the third big attack by Naxals against the police and paramilitary forces. It shows some security lapses in operation against Naxals.
Earlier, on April 6 last year the Maoists launched biggest attack in the history of naxal movement and killed 76 paramilitary forces in Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh. Within a few days they killed 35 people in the same district. In the summer of 2009, Maoist largely captured the Lalgarh area of West Bengal and posed a serious threat to security forces. Their strength lies in ambushing, mining the road and other guerrilla tactics. These incidents exposed the chinks in the armour of security forces.
As its historical evolution indicates, the naxal movement in India, in last few years shown the tendency of expanding its support base as well as intensification of violent activities. It has assumed regional and international orientation in view of the success of Maoist in the neighboring Nepal. This has emboldened Naxal groups in India. They are at present well entrenched in worst affected areas of West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Their guerrilla tactics have surprised the security forces. Besides, their wide support in rural and tribal areas of these states, they have generated certain amount of sympathy among certain urban educated and intellectual sections.
On the contrary, government forces are not acquinted with the jungle and terrains where maoist have control. Neither they are trained to face the guerrilla the maoist. The state police forces are under- manned, poorly trained equipped. To counter the Naxal threat, military action is not enough alone. Work should be done on multi-dimensional fronts. Surrender and resettlement schemes should be launched by the state governments in the affected areas, where naxals surrendering to the government are given financial incentives and facilities for their resettlement. The other component is a long term measure of expanding the development process in the affected areas. Due to lack of effective implementation of various development schemes, the naxals are able to co-opt the marginalised sections of rural poor and tribals. The corruption and administrative inefficiency have further compounded the development process.
In the view of the above discussion, it is clear that naxal violence is not a law and order problem in India. It is serious security threat to India with international and regional dimensions. The need of the hour is to adopt both social and administrative measures to tackle the threat posed by the naxal groups. Besides, the better training of security forces, planning and coordination is must for the success of government measures.